ü Meaning of Research
Research is defined as the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that lines an individual’s speculation with reality.
ü Characteristics of Research
1. Empirical. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher.
2. Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and principles.
3. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem.
4. Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental and case study.
5. Critical. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment.
6. Methodical. Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures.
7. Replicability. The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results.
ü Qualities of a Good Researcher
ü Characteristics of the Researcher
1. Intellectual Curiosity. A researcher undertakes a deep thinking and inquiry of the things, and situations around him.
2. Prudence. The researcher is careful to conduct his research study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
3. Healthy Criticism. The researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.
4. Intellectual Honesty. An intelligent researcher is honest to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.
5. Intellectual Creativity – A productive and resourceful investigator always creates new researches.
ü Values of Research to Man
1. Research improves the quality of life.
2. Research improves instruction.
3. Research improves students’ achievement.
4. Research improves teacher’s competence.
5. Research satisfies man’s needs.
6. Research reduces the burden of work.
7. Research has deep-seated psychological aspects.
8. Research improves the exportation of food products.
9. Research responds to the economic recovery and austerity measure of the country.
10. Research trains graduates to become responsive to the economic development of the country and to compete globally.
ü Types of Research
1. Basic Research. This is also called as “fundamental research” or “pure research”. It seeks to discover basic truths or principles.
· Boyle’s Law
· Charles’ Law
· Archimedes’ Principle
· Hooke’s Law
· Newton’s Law
2. Applied Research. This type of research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem, such as a development of a new system or procedure, new device, or new method in order to solve the problem.
3. Developmental Research. This is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices.
ü Classification of Research
1. Library Research. This is done in the library where answers to specific questions or problems of the study are available.
2. Field Research. Here, research is conducted in a natural setting.
3. Laboratory Research. The research is conducted in artificial or controlled conditions by isolating the study in a thoroughly specified and equipped area. The purposes are: (1) to test hypotheses derived from theory, (2) to control variance under research conditions, and (3) to discover the relations between the dependent and the independent.
ü Meaning of Variable
A variable is defined as a quantity susceptible of fluctuation or change in value or magnitude under different conditions.
ü Types of Variable
1. Independent Variable. This is the stimulus variable which is chosen by the researcher to determine the relationship to an observed phenomenon.
2. Dependent Variable. This is the response variable which is observed and measured to determine the effect of the independent variable.
3. Moderator Variable. This is a secondary or special type of independent variable chosen by the researcher to determine if it changes or modifies the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
4. Control Variable. This is the variable that is controlled by the investigator in which the effects can be neutralized by eliminating or removing the variable.
5. Intervening Variable. This is a variable which interferes with the independent and dependent variables, but its effects can either strengthen or weaken the independent and dependent variables.
ü Components of the research process
1. Problem/ Objectives
3. Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework
5. Review of Related Literature
6. Research Design
7. Data Collection
8. Data Processing and Statistical Treatment
9. Analysis and Interpretation
10. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations